Decorative ceilings: types and design methods
Although simplicity is considered the highest level of beauty, sometimes we want to introduce spectacular and picturesque nuances into the interior. Decorative ceilings - one of the ways to make your home outstanding and delightful. The main thing is to choose a coating that will harmoniously fit into the interior, emphasize its strengths and hide imperfections.
What should be considered when decorating the ceiling?
Each interior is individual. Anyone has his own characteristics - the pros and cons, which must be considered when choosing a ceiling. To determine the coverage, you need to evaluate the following nuances:
- the size of the room is its area and height. In spacious halls with high ceilings, multi-tier suspended structures, stucco moldings, beams made of wood or drywall will be beneficial. There is enough space and bulky decor will not break the harmony. It will only bring the surface closer, fill the void and add coziness. Low ceilings and small areas do not accept excessive decoration. In such rooms, it is worthwhile to limit ourselves to laconic forms, smooth and even surfaces;
- style decision - the ceiling should not be out of the general style. Plaster sockets, moldings and cornices with a patina will look rather strange in hi-tech, and metal grids and a concrete base with open wiring in a classic;
- the functionality of the room - depending on it, the complexity of the structure is determined and certain materials are selected;
- lighting system - if there is enough light from the main chandelier and wall fixtures, the ceiling can simply be painted, glued with wallpaper or tile. But if you need to install additional ceiling lights, you can not do without suspended compositions from drywall, caissons or stretch paintings. Otherwise, to embed the device and hide the wires will not work;
- colors - the ceilings in small rooms are best decorated in bright colors - white, milky, light gray, beige, sky blue, pale green. Such shades will not press and the surface will visually move away. Dark ones, on the contrary, will create a feeling of a “cover” above your head. But this is only true for matte surfaces.
When decorating the ceiling with a glossy canvas, this effect disappears. Thanks to the reflective properties of gloss, the coatings appear deep and distant.
Traditional, modern and unusual ways of decorating the ceiling
The variety of ceiling design options is fascinating. All of them, starting from traditional whitewash in the past and ending with the installation of paintings with 3D printing, are in one way or another in demand today.
Whitewashing and painting
If you prefer a simple and eco-friendly finish, simply lime the ceiling. To find out which material was used the previous time, rub the surface with your palm. The chalk will leave a clear mark, but the lime will not be erased. To perform the work, you will need only an ordinary roller or brush and diluted lime. Roughnesses better putty. After the patches have dried, you can start whitewashing.
To prevent the ceiling from turning yellow when exposed to sunlight, blue can be added to the lime.
A similar way of finishing - painting with water-based acrylic paints. The advantage of this material is that it:
- It is represented by a wide palette of shades - thanks to pigments you can create any tone;
- in the product line there are options with different levels of moisture resistance;
- various textures of the material allow you to choose "your" paint for any interior solution.
Acrylic paint can be matte, glossy and semi-gloss.
To carry out the work, it is necessary to prepare the ceiling - seal the cracks with tape for reinforcement, hide flaws with putties or plaster the surface. In addition to the light shades that we are all used to, you can use dark - preferably glossy, as well as bright colors. Active ceiling is a bright accent in the room. Therefore, the rest of the decoration and furniture is desirable to withstand in bright colors. A bright spot in the middle of the composition should be supported by accessories or textiles, the main thing is to remember a sense of proportion. The painted ceiling can be painted with decorative patterns, either in whole or in fragments - by defining with it the boundaries of a particular zone. The original "carpet" can be easily created with your own hands. For those who do not have the skill of drawing, there are luxurious stencils. Using them in conjunction with a sponge or spray, you can get excellent quality images.
Various irregularities, roughness will disappear from the ceiling due to decorative plaster. She will reliably hide defects under her texture. The material is prepared by diluting dry mortar. The composition includes cellulose glue, fibers and decorative additives - nacre, silk threads, marble particles. Using plaster, you can create a seamless, durable coating. Due to the ductility of the material, it is not so difficult to apply the mixture with a spatula to the ceiling. Venetian plaster is a traditional element of classic interiors, but it can be relevant in any design.
Beams and false beams
Beams - a characteristic feature of such styles as country, Provence, loft. They are bars of wood or polyurethane foam. The latter are designed to facilitate the design, to prevent its defeat by mold and fungus. Beams visually raise the ceiling, are used for zoning and correction of the shape of the room. If you place them parallel to a short wall, the outlines of the room will approach a square. Beams act as load-bearing elements of the ceiling, perform a decorative function. The beam may have a rectangular p-shaped cross section. The advantages of false beams are obvious. It is a lightweight, easy-to-assemble material with a rich palette of shades and a variety of shapes.
They provide an opportunity:
- hide wiring;
- embed lights;
- conduct ventilation ducts;
- hide water pipes.
Solid wood beams also have their advantages. They look expensive and noble, withstand heavy loads, so that they can be fixed to a hanging chair or a children's swing. Beams are decorated with carvings, painted in different colors, and decorated with paintings.
Fabric and its main types
Fabrics for suspended ceilings are made using a special technology. Polyurethane impregnated polyester is used as the basis for the canvas. This material is much stronger than the usual PVC coatings, resistant to low temperatures. It has a rough matte surface, it looks expensive and presentable. The width is 5 m, which allows you to create a seamless coating in spacious rooms. Fabric ceilings have good hygroscopicity, which prevents the appearance of fungal formations. Safe sheets can be safely used in children's rooms. The material is odorless. Installation of fabric ceilings is easy and fast, and most importantly - without the use of a heat gun. Cloths are fixed in two ways - using a clothespin profile and a semicircular spatula or glazing bead system.
The disadvantages of the material are its high cost compared to PVC ceilings, the difficulty in maintenance due to the texture surface, the inability to retain water and the poor choice of shades. The last problem can be solved by repainting the coating or ordering canvas with photo printing.
Coatings can imitate satin, suede, velvet, leather, chintz textures. There are textured options, the basis for which is the grid, and the top layer is made of fabric with a pattern.
Stucco molding is an element of classic interiors. Previously, due to its high cost, only a privileged class could afford it. The emergence of inexpensive options from polyurethane and polystyrene made it affordable for any budget. In the “family” of stucco moldings there are a huge number of elements: moldings, baguettes, corners, ceiling sockets, cornices, friezes, bas-reliefs, columns, half-columns, arches, garlands, pilasters, balusters, brackets and pedestals. This decorative solution is of great practical importance. With it, you can zoning the room, hide the joints of materials and surface imperfections.
In small rooms, the material must be used very sparingly and carefully. Do not try to turn them into palace halls - an abundance of stucco decoration “hides” the already modest size.
Stained glass ceiling
Glass with drawings can decorate any room. In the old days only windows and walls were decorated with stained-glass windows, and they “rose” to the ceiling quite recently. Square and rectangular plates are mounted on the faces of the T-shaped profile. Stained glass elements will fit into any interior with dignity - depending on the pattern used. Behind them is a backlight that makes decorative elements simply magical.
The advantages of the material are in its remarkable appearance, a variety of design, water resistance and environmental friendliness. The flip side of the coin is its high cost and fragility. But modern glass manufacturing technologies allow you not to worry about safety - in interiors you can use triplex or tempered paintings. Plastic analogues will help reduce the cost and eliminate the possibility of damage.
There are various stained glass manufacturing techniques:
- photo printing on a film, which subsequently sticks to the glass;
- drawing of a painted mosaic;
- jellied - initially the picture is denoted by a copper or silver outline, then filled with paints.
The main advantage of painted ceilings is their uniqueness. Images can be chosen to your liking. The heavenly blue, biblical subjects or a complex ornate ornament will become an exclusive decoration in a single copy.
For painting ceilings use the following types of paints:
- oil - the technique allows you to endow image elements with different depths, transparency and volume;
- tempera - sold in the form of dry powders that need to be diluted with water. They dry very quickly and create interesting effects due to their transparency;
- Acrylic - allow to realize a water-repellent coating. They are offered in a wide range of colors, the formation of texture when adding fillers is possible;
- luminescent - ornaments applied with such a paint appear in the dark.
For painting using different techniques:
- Art - a complex and time-consuming process, which is best entrusted to a professional artist;
- fresco - paint is applied to wet plaster and penetrates into its deep layers;
- airbrushing - a special device sprays paint with maximum accuracy, facilitates the drawing of the smallest details;
- Screen painting - does not require mastery of the artist’s skill, only patience and accuracy will be required.
Ceiling decor with paper or wallpaper
This ceiling decoration option is not new. Modern materials significantly expand the capabilities of decorators. Paper "pioneers" found worthy competitors in the face of non-woven, vinyl, acrylic, fiberglass, fabric and metal "brothers." Special positions in the wallpaper range are occupied by liquid cellulose materials and photo panels with various prints. The advantage of decorating the ceiling with wallpaper is the relative cheapness of the materials, the huge variety of their assortment and easy installation.
Features of bamboo wallpaper on the ceiling
Bamboo canvases fill the room with natural motifs. They are produced from stems that are carefully dried and aged at a certain temperature. Different wallpapers are made from different parts of the stem - the core or bark. This is reflected in their appearance - the first ones are smoother and lighter, but not sufficiently resistant to moisture and ultraviolet rays. To preserve them in their original form, the material is varnished. The second have a natural texture and a protective wax coating. Ceilings glued with bamboo wallpaper are environmentally friendly, bactericidal, capable of improved noise and heat insulation, strength and resistance to mechanical influences.
Decoupage on the ceiling
Decoupage technique is a simple and inexpensive way to decorate the ceiling. Using it, you can "paint" the surface with your own hands. Applications with maximum credibility imitate art painting. No one will ever guess that a professional artist did not work on the image.
How to decorate the ceiling using decoupage?
First of all, it is necessary to develop a sketch of the future ceiling and choose suitable images.
The following materials will be required:
- motifs cut from napkins or decoupage paper;
- acrylic primer;
- PVA glue;
- wide brush.
The surface must be prepared - cleaned of dust and primed with an acrylic compound. Next, paste fragments of the image using PVA. Glue is applied to the prepared surface with a thin layer, and then a picture is applied on top. The finest paper is smoothed with a wide brush to get rid of inevitable folds. The pressure should be soft, as the material breaks easily. Next, we leave the ceiling to dry and exclude the penetration of drafts into the room. After drying, we cover the surface with several layers of varnish to protect the decor from moisture and sunlight. Each layer should dry well - this requires at least 12 hours.
Moldings and baguettes
These elements have long ceased to be only part of the classic interiors. Molded elements will add coziness and aesthetics to a wide variety of rooms. With the help of moldings, sockets, baguettes, you can create a certain architecture on the ceiling and decorate it. So that they do not seem pretentious, paint them the same color as the ceiling. So they will add elegance and only slightly recall the classics, but will not stand out much. When mounting, it is necessary to putty the joints to create the illusion of integral compositions.
Layered and curly ceilings
Layered drywall constructions are a great way to create an original and beautiful decor, and at the same time hide electric cords or pipes. In the middle of a suspended composition, as a rule, colored PVC canvases or fabric analogues are pulled. But you can also tiling this space with tiles, murals.
Patterns on the ceilings are in the form of:
- geometric shapes;
- abstract curved and spiral lines;
- backlit geometric cells.
You can create soaring ceilings, then the lower level will not adjoin the base. Such decorations are justified in public areas with high ceilings or in a private house. The design will bring the ceiling closer and make the atmosphere more comfortable.
Normal drywall is afraid of moisture, so in the bathroom and kitchen it is better to use waterproof varieties of this material or completely abandon it.
Tile decoration is one of the simple and inexpensive ways to decorate the ceiling. It is not particularly popular, but sometimes it helps out a lot when it is necessary to quickly hide untidy surfaces and wires without significant investments. For example, in a rented apartment or in the country. In addition to white elements, colored tiles with various patterns appeared on sale.Therefore, without difficulty, you can choose the finishing material that will fit into the decoration of the room. You don’t have to hire specialists for installation - you can do everything yourself. Before gluing the tiles, you need to align the base and primer the surface. At the final stage - glue the baseboard. If desired, the ceiling can be painted in any color or decorate the protruding ornament.
Tension coatings are perfectly even surfaces that do not need additional finishing. They do not have to be painted or plastered. And if a flood suddenly occurs, such a ceiling will save furniture and the rest of the decoration from water. Cloths are mounted on a metal profile with a harpoon or harpoonless method. After that, the surface is heated using a heat gun and stretched. Further, holes for connecting lamps are cut in the canvas, and the contour is closed with a baguette.
Varieties of material texture
- Decorated with photo printing.
Slatted, cassette and panel ceilings
All of these coatings are typesetting, where each element is mounted on a metal or wooden frame. They perfectly hide wiring, bumps, joints of plates.
Types of typesetting ceilings:
- cassette - are rectangular and square plates of steel or aluminum. Thanks to interesting colors - golden, silver, as well as mirror options can become a decoration of a modern interior. Plates are attached to the frame like armstrong systems;
- rack - consist of separate metal rails, each of which is mounted on a profile. The mounting method may be open or closed. Finishing is more suitable for office and retail space. In living quarters, it will be appropriate in the bathroom or in the kitchen, as it is not afraid of moisture.
- panel - plastic or MDF panels - an inexpensive and practical finishing option for wet rooms in an apartment or in a country house. Panels can imitate natural stone or wood - birch, oak, cherry. Mounted on a frame made of wooden or metal profile. When mounting on level bases - boards, chipboard or plywood, no lathing is required.
Choose a coating that is consistent with the features of the interior, your own taste and financial capabilities.